# Questions tagged [nt.number-theory]

Prime numbers, diophantine equations, diophantine approximations, analytic or algebraic number theory, arithmetic geometry, Galois theory, transcendental number theory, continued fractions

3,765
questions with no upvoted or accepted answers

**133**

votes

**0**answers

11k views

### Grothendieck-Teichmuller conjecture

(1) In "Esquisse d'un programme", Grothendieck conjectures
Grothendieck-Teichmuller conjecture: the morphism
$$
G_{\mathbb{Q}} \longrightarrow Aut(\widehat{T})
$$
is an isomorphism.
Here $G_{\...

**72**

votes

**0**answers

2k views

### The exponent of Ш of $y^2 = x^3 + px$, where $p$ is a Fermat prime

For $d$ a non-zero integer, let $E_d$ be the elliptic curve
$$
E_d : y^2 = x^3+dx.
$$
When we let $d$ be $p = 2^{2^k}+1$, for $k \in \{1,2,3,4\}$, sage tells us that, conditionally on BSD,
$$
\# Ш(E_p)...

**61**

votes

**0**answers

3k views

### Constructing non-torsion rational points (over Q) on elliptic curves of rank > 1

Consider an elliptic curve $E$ defined over $\mathbb Q$. Assume that the rank of $E(\mathbb Q)$ is $\geq2$. (Assume the Birch-Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture if needed, so that analytic rank $=$ algebraic ...

**56**

votes

**0**answers

3k views

### (Approximately) bijective proof of $\zeta(2)=\pi^2/6$ ?

Given $A,B\in {\Bbb Z}^2$, write $A \leftrightarrows B$ if the
interior of the line segment AB misses
${\Bbb Z}^2$.
For $r>0$, define
$S_r:=\{ \{A, B\} | A,B\in {\Bbb Z}^2,||A||<r,||B||<r, |...

**53**

votes

**0**answers

3k views

### Grothendieck's Period Conjecture and the missing p-adic Hodge Theories

Singular cohomology and algebraic de Rham cohomology are both functors from the category of smooth projective algebraic varieties over $\mathbb Q$ to $\mathbb Q$-vectors spaces. They come with the ...

**50**

votes

**0**answers

2k views

### On the first sequence without triple in arithmetic progression

In this Numberphile video (from 3:36 to 7:41), Neil Sloane explains an amazing sequence:
It is the lexicographically first among the sequences of positive integers without triple in arithmetic ...

**43**

votes

**0**answers

2k views

### A three-line proof of global class field theory?

There is an idea (I think originally due to Tate) that class field theory is fundamentally a consequence of Pontrjagin duality and Hilbert Theorem 90. I'm curious whether this can phrased using modern ...

**41**

votes

**0**answers

2k views

### What does the theta divisor of a number field know about its arithmetic?

This question is about a remark made by van der Geer and Schoof in their beautiful article "Effectivity of Arakelov divisors and the theta divisor of a number field" (from '98) (link).
Let me first ...

**40**

votes

**0**answers

3k views

### Can you solve the listed smallest open Diophantine equations?

In 2018, Zidane asked What is the smallest unsolved diophantine equation? The suggested way to measure size is substitute 2 instead of all variables, absolute values instead of all coefficients, and ...

**36**

votes

**1**answer

5k views

### A generalisation of the equation $n = ab + ac + bc$

In a result I am currently studying (completely unrelated to number theory), I had to examine the solvability of the equation $n = ab+ac+bc$ where $n,a,b,c$ are positive integers $0 < a < b < ...

**33**

votes

**0**answers

2k views

### Peano Arithmetic and the Field of Rationals

In 1949 Julia Robinson showed the undecidability of the first order theory of the field of rationals by demonstrating that the set of natural numbers $\Bbb{N}$ is first order definable in $(\Bbb{Q}, +,...

**32**

votes

**0**answers

938 views

### Cubic function $\mathbb{Z}^2 \to \mathbb{Z}$ cannot be injective

It is easy to show, with an explicit construction, that a homogeneous cubic function $f: \mathbb{Z}^2 \to \mathbb{Z}$ is not injective. I am seeking a proof of the same result without the condition ...

**32**

votes

**0**answers

938 views

### Is there a rigid analytic geometry proof of the functional equation for the Riemann zeta function?

The adèles $\mathbb A$ arise naturally when considering the Berkovich space $\mathcal M(\mathbb Z)$ of the integers. Namely, they are the stalk $\mathbb A = (j_\ast j^{-1} \mathcal O_\mathbb Z)_p$ ...

**31**

votes

**0**answers

1k views

### How to prove the identity $L(2,(\frac{\cdot}3))=\frac2{15}\sum\limits_{k=1}^\infty\frac{48^k}{k(2k-1)\binom{4k}{2k}\binom{2k}k}$?

For the Dirichlet character $\chi(a)=(\frac a3)$ (which is the Legendre symbol), we have
$$L(2,\chi)=\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac{(\frac n3)}{n^2}=0.781302412896486296867187429624\ldots.$$
Note that this ...

**31**

votes

**0**answers

952 views

### Is there any positive integer sequence $c_{n+1}=\frac{c_n(c_n+n+d)}n$?

In a recent answer Max Alekseyev provided two recurrences of the form mentioned in the title which stay integer for a long time. However, they eventually fail.
QUESTION Is there any (added: ...

**30**

votes

**0**answers

2k views

### Defining $\mathbb{Z}$ in $\mathbb{Q}$

It was proved by Poonen that $\mathbb{Z}$ is definable in the structure $(\mathbb{Q}, +, \cdot, 0, 1)$ using $\forall \exists$ formula. Koenigsmann has shown that $\mathbb{Z}$ is in fact definable by ...

**29**

votes

**0**answers

695 views

### Is there an Ehrhart polynomial for Gaussian integers

Let $N$ be a positive integer and let $P \subset \mathbb{C}$ be a polygon whose vertices are of the form $(a_1+b_1 i)/N$, $(a_2+b_2 i)/N$, ..., $(a_r+b_r i)/N$, with $a_j + b_j i$ being various ...

**28**

votes

**0**answers

1k views

### A question related to the Hofstadter–Conway \$10000 sequence

The Hofstadter–Conway \$10000 sequence is defined by the nested recurrence relation $$c(n) = c(c(n-1)) + c(n-c(n-1))$$ with $c(1) = c(2) = 1$. This sequence is A004001 and it is well-known that this ...

**28**

votes

**0**answers

1k views

### Linking formulas by Euler, Pólya, Nekrasov-Okounkov

Consider the formal product
$$F(t,x,z):=\prod_{j=0}^{\infty}(1-tx^j)^{z-1}.$$
(a) If $z=2$ then on the one hand we get Euler's
$$F(t,x,2)=\sum_{n\geq0}\frac{(-1)^nx^{\binom{n}2}}{(x;x)_n}t^n,$$
on the ...

**28**

votes

**0**answers

854 views

### On certain representations of algebraic numbers in terms of trigonometric functions

Let's say that a real number has a simple trigonometric representation, if it can be represented as a product of zero or more rational powers of positive integers and zero or more (positive or ...

**28**

votes

**0**answers

1k views

### Derivative of Class number of real quadratic fields

Let $\Delta$ be a fundamental quadratic discriminant, set $N = |\Delta|$,
and define the Fekete polynomials
$$ F_N(X) = \sum_{a=1}^N \Big(\frac{\Delta}a\Big) X^a. $$
Define
$$ f_N(X) = \frac{F_N(X)}{...

**27**

votes

**0**answers

631 views

### Does this infinite primes snake-product converge?

This re-asks a question I posed on MSE:
Q. Does this infinite product converge?
$$
\frac{2}{3}\cdot\frac{7}{5}\cdot\frac{11}{13}\cdot\frac{19}{17}\cdot\frac{23}{29}\cdot\frac{37}{31} \cdot \cdots \...

**27**

votes

**0**answers

1k views

### A modern perspective on the relationship between Drinfeld modules and shtukas

Shtukas were defined by Drinfeld as a generalization of Drinfeld modules. While the relationship between the definitions of Drinfeld modules and shtukas is not obvious, one does have a natural ...

**27**

votes

**0**answers

906 views

### Non-linear expanders?

Recall that a family of graphs (indexed by an infinite set, such as the primes, say) is called an expander family if there is a $\delta>0$ such that, on every graph in the family, the discrete ...

**27**

votes

**0**answers

2k views

### What are the possible singular fibers of an elliptic fibration over a higher dimensional base?

An elliptic fibration is a proper morphism $Y\rightarrow B$ between varieties such that the fiber over a general point of the base $B$ is a smooth curve of genus one.
It is often required for the ...

**26**

votes

**0**answers

507 views

### A sequence potentially consisting of only integers

I will first ask the question which can be stated very simply. Afterwards I will explain some motivation and give references to related sequences.
Consider the sequence defined by
$$b_n = \frac{(...

**26**

votes

**0**answers

483 views

### Can we write each positive rational number as $\frac1{p_1-1}+\ldots+\frac1{p_k-1}$ with $p_1,\ldots,p_k$ distinct primes?

It is well-known that any positive rational number can be written as the sum of finitely many distinct unit fractions. This is easy since
$$\frac1n=\frac1{n+1}+\frac1{n(n+1)}\quad\text{for all}\ n=1,2,...

**26**

votes

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738 views

### Is the Flajolet-Martin constant irrational? Is it transcendental?

Facebook has a new tool to estimate the average path length between you and any other person on Facebook. An interesting aspect of their method is the use of the Flajolet-Martin algorithm.
In the ...

**26**

votes

**0**answers

2k views

### Orders in number fields

Let $K$ be a degree $n$ extension of ${\mathbb Q}$ with ring of integers $R$. An order in $K$ is a subring with identity of $R$ which is a ${\mathbb Z}$-module of rank $n$.
Question: Let $p$ be an ...

**25**

votes

**0**answers

503 views

### Galois representations attached to Shimura varieties - after a decade

In an answer to the question Tools for the Langlands Program?, Emerton, in his usual illuminating manner, remarks on the reciprocity aspect of Langlands Program: "...As to constructing Galois ...

**25**

votes

**0**answers

802 views

### Which sets of roots of unity give a polynomial with nonnegative coefficients?

The question in brief: When does a subset $S$ of the complex $n$th roots of unity have the property that
$$\prod_{\alpha\, \in \,S} (z-\alpha)$$
gives a polynomial in $\mathbb R[z]$ with ...

**24**

votes

**0**answers

830 views

### 0's in 815915283247897734345611269596115894272000000000

Is 40 the largest number for which all the 0 digits in the decimal form of $n!$ come at the end?
Motivation: My son considered learning all digits of 40! for my birthday. I told him that the best way ...

**24**

votes

**0**answers

1k views

### Exotic 4-spheres and the Tate-Shafarevich Group

The title is a talk given by Sir M. Atiyah in a conference with the following abstract:
I will explain a deep analogy between 4-dimensional smooth geometry (Donaldson theory)...

**24**

votes

**0**answers

838 views

### Nekrasov-Okounkov hook length formula

I am now reading the paper An explicit expansion formula for the powers of the Euler Product in terms of partition hook lengths by Guo-Niu Han. The author rediscovered what he calls the Nekrasov-...

**23**

votes

**0**answers

829 views

### Base change for $\sqrt{2}.$

This is a direct follow-up to Conjecture on irrational algebraic numbers.
Take the decimal expansion for $\sqrt{2},$ but now think of it as the base $11$ expansion of some number $\theta_{11}.$ Is ...

**23**

votes

**0**answers

768 views

### Eichler-Shimura over Totally Real Fields

By Eichler-Shimura over totally real fields I mean the following conjecture.
Conjecture. Let $K$ be a totally real field. Let $f$ be a Hilbert eigenform with rational eigenvalues, of parallel weight $...

**22**

votes

**0**answers

1k views

### Is A276175 integer-only?

The terms of the sequence A276123, defined by $a_0=a_1=a_2=1$ and $$a_n=\dfrac{(a_{n-1}+1)(a_{n-2}+1)}{a_{n-3}}\;,$$ are all integers (it's easy to prove that for all $n\geq2$, $a_n=\frac{9-3(-1)^n}{2}...

**22**

votes

**0**answers

1k views

### K-theory and rings of integers

From the works of Borel and Quillen there is a connection between the $K$-theory of the ring of integers $\mathfrak{o}_K$ in a number field $K$ and the arithmetic of the number field. In fact, it is ...

**22**

votes

**0**answers

1k views

### Fake CM elliptic curves

Suppose one has an elliptic curve $E$ over $\mathbb{Q}$ with conductor $N < k^3$ for some (large) positive $k$, with the property that its Fourier coefficients satisfy
$$
a_p=0, \; \mbox{ for all }...

**22**

votes

**0**answers

759 views

### Smooth proper schemes over Z with points everywhere locally

This is a variation on Poonen's question, taking Buzzard's fabulous example into account. It was earlier a part of this other question.
Question. Is there a smooth proper scheme $X\to\operatorname{...

**21**

votes

**0**answers

719 views

### Whither Kronecker's Jugendtraum?

Kronecker's Jugendtraum (Hilbert's 12th problem) asks us to find for any number field $K$ an explicit collection of complex-valued functions whose explicitly described special values generate the ...

**21**

votes

**0**answers

1k views

### Do we know how to determine the $2^{2020}$ decimal of $\sqrt{2}$?

In the case of $\dfrac{1}{7^{800}}$ it's easy, to find the $2^{2020}$ decimal, but what about the simplest of the irrational numbers.
Question: Do we know how to determine the $2^{2020}$ decimal of $\...

**21**

votes

**0**answers

711 views

### Class field theory and the class group

Let $k$ be a finite abelian extension of $\mathbb{Q}$. Class field theory states that $k$ corresponds to some open subgroup of finite index $U_k \subset \mathbb{A}_{\mathbb{Q}}^*/ \mathbb{Q}^*$ where $...

**21**

votes

**0**answers

558 views

### Bounding failures of the integral Hodge and Tate conjectures

It is well know that the integral versions of the Hodge and Tate conjectures can fail. I once heard an off hand comment however that they should only fail by a "bounded amount". My question is what ...

**21**

votes

**0**answers

1k views

### Most "natural" proof of the existence of Hilbert class fields

Assume that you have proved the two inequalities of class field theory, and that you want to show that the Hilbert class field, i.e., the maximal unramified abelian extension, of a number field $K$ ...

**21**

votes

**0**answers

2k views

### Trigonometry related to Rogers--Ramanujan identities

For integers $n\ge2$ and $k\ge2$, fix the notation
$$
[m]=\sin\frac{\pi m}{nk+1} \quad\text{and}\quad
[m]!=[1][2]\dots[m], \qquad m\in\mathbb Z_{>0}.
$$
Consider the following trigonometric numbers:...

**20**

votes

**0**answers

621 views

### Are Erdős polynomials irreducible?

Define the Erdős polynomial to be $f_n(x):= \sum \limits_{0 \leq i,j \leq n}^{}{x^{ij}}$ (the name is motivated by http://oeis.org/A027424).
For example for $n=5$, the polynomial is given by $x^{25}+...

**20**

votes

**0**answers

882 views

### Could unramified Galois groups satisfy a version of property tau?

This is an experiment: there is a question I want to mention in an article I'm writing, and I am not sure it's a sensible question, so I will ask it here first, in the hopes that if it's insensible ...

**20**

votes

**0**answers

863 views

### Deciding whether a given power series is modular or not

The degree 3 modular equation for the Jacobi modular invariant
$$
\lambda(q)=\biggl(\frac{\sum_{n\in\mathbb Z}q^{(n+1/2)^2}}{\sum_{n\in\mathbb Z}q^{n^2}}\biggr)^4
$$
is given by
$$
(\alpha^2+\beta^2+6\...

**19**

votes

**0**answers

935 views

### Mumford-Tate conjecture for mixed Tate motives

Let $X$ be a (not necessarily smooth or proper) variety over a number field $k$. Suppose we are given
A subquotient $V_{dR}$ of the algebraic de Rham cohomology $H_{dR}^i(X)$ (defined in the non-...